This is the original document I posted on the internet on 31 January 2001. I am planning to leave it unchanged, only writing in this left column. The link to the updated version includes modifications in the 2002 Roman Missal.
Ministers in Masses by J.R. Lilburne
1. On December 4, 1963 His Holiness Pope Paul VI promulgated Sacrosanctum Concilium - The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy. It was the first document of the Second Vatican Council. Its first paragraph stated:
2. Challenges for the Church are presented, and particular prominence is given to the liturgy as the means of addressing them.
3. In Sacrosanctum Concilium, n 21, it was written that the new texts should, as far as possible, be understood with ease by the Christian people.
4. In n. 29 it states "Servers, readers, commentators and members of the choir ... must be trained to perform their functions in a correct and orderly manner."
5. Paragraph 31 is one of the shortest in Sacrosanctum Concilium : "The revision of the liturgical books must carefully attend to the provision of rubrics also for the people's parts."
6. It is hoped that this document will contribute to these elements of the liturgical reform. In particular it aims to provide a description of:
- The instructions from the liturgical books for lay ministers in the Mass.
- Some options for implementing the 3rd Edition of the Roman Missal. This focuses on the roles of bishops and Conferences of Bishops in regulating lay ministers.
7. CB Ceremonial of Bishops (Minnesota, Liturgical Press, 1989) an English translation of Caeremoniale Episcoporum (Liberia Editrice Vaticana, published in 1984 and a more recent edition in 1995). According to a letter dated 26 October 1999 from Cardinal Estevez, of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, to the Bishop of Galloway: "The Congregation is obliged to note also that a translation of the Caeremoniale Episcoporum was published by the Mixed Commission without the necessary episcopal approbation and without the recognitio of this Congregation". [ From: www.credo.org/medina1099.htm]
8. DOL Documents on the Liturgy (Minnesota, Liturgical Press, 1982).
9. DMC Directory for Masses with Children, Pueros baptizatos, 1 November 1973. A copy is in DOL, page 676.
10. GILH General Instruction of the Liturgy of the Hours, 2 February 1971. A copy is in DOL, page 1091.
11. GIRM General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 1975 version. A copy is in DOL, page 465.
12. IG Institutio Generalis or 2000 version of the General Instruction of the Roman Missal. The English Language Study Translation was published in July 2000 by the Secretariat for the Liturgy of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops. (Its cost is $US 12 per copy, by mailing a cheque payable to BCL to Institutio Generalis, NCCB Secretariat for the Liturgy, 3211 4th St, NE, Washington DC 20017). The Latin edition was published by Liberia Editrice Vaticana, 2000. (Outside Italy, it can be purchased from www.IXTmedia.com). According to the introduction to the English translation: "The translation found here, however, is designed only for study purposes and will be replaced in the future by a more definitive version enjoying the approval of the episcopal conference and the confirmation of the Holy See."
13. LM General Introduction to the Lectionary for Mass
14. Different rules apply for different types of Mass, depending on who is present and the form of celebration. The regulations are provided in different places as listed below.
15. Basic Mass - Mass without a deacon, without concelebrants. GIRM 82 - 126, IG 120 - 170
16. Mass with a deacon. GIRM 127 - 141, IG 171 - 186.
17. Concelebrated Mass. GIRM 153 - 208, IG 199 - 251.
18. Mass with only one minister, without a congregation. GIRM 210 - 231, IG 252 - 272.
19. IG 21, footnote 32 (in the Latin text, the English study translation is wrong), refers to other documents for the rules on some Masses:
20. Mass combined with the Liturgy of the Hours, GILH 93 - 98.
21. Mass with Children, DMC. The regulations here may also apply in a normal Mass with adults (which has some children attending) according to DMC 19: "Wherever the bishop permits, in addition to the adaptions already provided in the Order of Mass, one or other of the particular adaptions described later in the Directory may be employed in a Mass celebrated with adults in which children also participate."
22. With Special Groups - Instruction Actio pastoralis, on Masses with special groups, 15 May 1969. A copy is in Documents on the Liturgy (Minnesota, Liturgical Press, 1982), page 672.
23. According to IG 112: "At Mass celebrated by the Bishop, or whenever he presides without celebrating the Eucharist, the norms which are found in the Caeremoniale Episcoporum should be followed." So the regulations may be different for the following types of Mass:
24. Mass of Bishop, not stational. CB 55 - 118, 171 - 174.
25. Mass at which the Bishop presides but not as celebrant. CB 175 - 186.
26. Stational Mass of Bishop. CB 119 - 170.
27. Mass should normally have at least two people in the entrance procession. If there are only two, one will do the functions of the celebrant and the other will do the functions of the minister. Both should sit in the sanctuary and wear approved attire.
28. The functions of the minister may be performed by an instituted acolyte, a deacon, an instituted reader, a concelebrant, or a lay person. The suitability of a lay person is determined by the Parish Priest or Church Rector (IG 107).
29. In IG 254 it says "Mass should not be celebrated without a minister or at least some of the faithful except for a just and reasonable cause." For Mass with a congregation: "As far as possible, and especially on Sundays and holy days of obligation, this Mass should be celebrated with liturgical song and with a suitable number of ministers. But it may be celebrated without music and with only one minister. ... It is desirable that as a rule an acolyte, a reader, and a cantor assist the priest celebrant." (IG 115-116)
30. Two tasks in the Mass are described as being performed by a person other than the celebrant.
- Taking the corporal, chalice, Missal, and purificator from the side table and placing them on the altar (IG 139, GIRM 100).
- Pouring water on the priest's hands when he washes them (IG 145, GIRM 106).
31. If there is no minister, and the celebrant does these tasks himself, then these instructions in the liturgical books are not being followed. This may only be done for a "just and reasonable cause".
32. Some functions of the minister will be physically impossible for the celebrant to do, (although they may be optional):
- Presenting the book, while the priest proclaims the prayers and makes the gestures with his hands.
- Carrying the thurible.
- Ringing the bell at the showing of the host and chalice after the consecration.
- Assisting in distributing communion under both kinds (although this can be done by another person).
33. Parts of the Mass may be performed by the celebrant, the minister or a lay person:
- Saying the entrance antiphon and communion antiphon
- Introducing the Mass after the Celebrant's greeting (IG 50, GIRM 29)
- Singing the Kyrie (IG 52, GIRM 30)
- Starting the Gloria (IG 53)
- Reading the first reading, the Responsorial Psalm, and second reading
- Singing the Alleluia or verse before the Gospel
- Singing the Sequence
- Starting the Profession of Faith
- Reading the general intercessions (after the celebrant starts and finishes them)
- Starting the hymns
34. All these functions could be performed by the one minister,
in accordance with IG 110: "If only one minister is present
at a Mass with a congregation, that minister may exercise several
35. According to CB 110, it is a custom for all who enter a church dip their hand in a font (stoup) of blessed water and sign themselves with the sign of the cross, as a reminder of their baptism.
36. Silence in the church, before Mass, is encouraged in IG 45: "Even before the celebration itself, it is praiseworthy for silence to be observed in church, in the sacristry and adjacent areas".
37. According to CB 71, everyone who enters a church should visit the blessed sacrament chapel, or at least genuflect to the blessed sacrament. The Cross is genuflected to from the time of solemn adoration of Good Friday until the beginning of the Easter Vigil (CB 69).
38. According to CB 72, a bow of the body is made to the altar "by all who enter the sanctuary (chancel), leave it, or pass before the altar". IG 275 says a bow of the body is made to the altar, but without saying when this is done. The IG describes the bow for the entrance procession, and procession at the end of Mass. Bishops could clarify whether the deep bow is required when preparing the sanctuary for Mass.
39. Vesting takes place in the vesting room, which should be close to the entrance of the church, and may be separate from the sacristry.
40. In IG 120, ministers are virtually defined as those wearing vestments in the entrance procession: "ministers, clad in their vestments". The Latin text for this is: "ministri, sacris vestibus induti" - literally: "ministers, sacred clothes wearing".
41. In other places there appear to be alternatives:
42. IG 119 (c) has been translated as: "for the other ministers: albs or other lawfully approved vestments." However the term translated as "vestments" is "vestes", which could be translated as "clothes".
43. IG 336 has been translated as: "The vestment common to ministers of every rank, ordained and lay, is the alb ..." However the word translated as "lay" is "institutis", which would normally be translated as "instituted".
44. IG 339 has been translated as: "Acolytes, readers and other lay ministers wear the alb or other vestment that is lawfully approved in each region by the Conference of Bishops." However the Latin ends with "possunt", meaning "can, able". This was translated in GIRM 301 as "lay ministers may wear the alb...". The study translation has omitted "may". The word translated as "vestment" is "vestes", which could be translated as "clothes".
45. According to LM 54 "an instituted reader must wear the distinctive vestment of their office when they go to the lectern to read the word of God. Those who carry out the ministry of reader just for the occasion or even regularly but without institution may go to the lectern in ordinary attire that is in keeping with local custom."
46. However, according to the translation of the 1970 GIRM 82 and IG 120, it seems that everyone in the entrance procession (including the reader) must wear vestments: "Once the people have gathered, the priest and ministers, clad in their vestments, go to the altar in this order: ..." It seems people without vestments cannot be part of the procession. The Latin text, however, is: "Populo congregato, sacerdos, et ministri, sacris vestibus induti, ad altare procedunt hoc ordine: ..." (The IG has an extra comma, added after sacerdos, that was not in the 1970 GIRM - seeming to make it clearer that this is a list of who may be in the procession). From this it seems that not everyone in the procession must be a priest (sacerdos) or minister, but that it may include the gathered people "populo congregato". Thus the reader, who is not specified as being a minister, may be one of the people in ordinary clothes, rather than a minister.
47. Following IG 107 the Bishop, in the norms for his diocese, could more clearly establish:
- which functions of the instituted acolyte and instituted reader must be performed with an alb or other vestment
- and under what circumstances vestments could be omitted.
48. According to IG 119 everyone wearing an alb should use a cincture and amice, unless they are not needed on account of the type of alb. According to CB 65, the amice should be put on if the alb does not completely cover the minister's street clothing at the neck.
49. For the Stational Mass an additional vestment - cassock and surplice - seems to be permitted for lay ministers. After listing the vestments for the bishop, concelebrants, and deacons it has "for other ministers: amices, albs, and cinctures or cassocks and surplices, or other lawfully approved vesture" (CB 125). It is surprising that lay ministers wear cassock and surplice, which is to be worn by priests who take part in the Mass but do not concelebrate, according to CB 66. Usually vestments are intended to promote the proper identity of those ordained from those who are not. IG 119 has added footnote 95, which refers to a document that emphasises this point.[Ecclesia de mysterio, 15 August 1997, article 6. The English title is "Instruction on certain questions regarding the collaboration of the non-ordained faithful in the sacred ministry of priests."] Possibly the inclusion of cassock and surplice in the list of vestments for "other ministers" was intended for priests who are not concelebrants, rather than for lay ministers. Bishops may decide to regulate on this issue in their diocese, in accordance with IG 107.
50. For a Basic Mass, according to IG 118, the following are required in the sanctuary:
a. next to the priest's chair: the missal and, as needed, the hymnal.
b. on the ambo: the Lectionary
c. on the side table:
chalice, corporal, purificator, and (if useful) pall;
paten and pyxides (i.e. ciboriums, pyxes, vessels for
the Blessed Sacrament) if needed;
vessel of water to be blessed, if there is a sprinkling;
communion plate (this only seems to be required for some methods of receiving communion under both kinds).
the requisites for the washing of hands (this seems to require a jug, a bowl and a towel).
51. The chalice may be covered with a veil, which may be the colour of the day, or white. (The chalice veil was compulsory in GIRM 80, but has been made optional in IG 118).
52. If the vessels are to be cleansed immediately after Mass, they are covered and left on a corporal, either on the altar or the side table (IG 163). This may require an extra corporal and special chalice veil.
53. According to IG 117, the altar is covered with at least one white cloth. On, or next to, the altar are candlesticks with lighted candles. There are to be two, four, or six candles. There is to be a cross, with a figure of Christ crucified, on (or near) the altar. The candles and the cross may be carried in the entrance procession. The Book of the Gospels (if distinct from the book of the other readings) may be placed on the altar or carried in the entrance procession. (IG 117).
54. According to IG 305, flowers should not be placed on the altar. They may decorate the altar by being placed around it. During Lent they cannot decorate the altar, except for the Fourth Sunday of Lent, solemnities and feast days.
55. The chalice, paten, pyx (as necessary), corporal, purificator and missal are not placed on the altar before Mass, but only from the presentation of the gifts to the cleansing of vessels. (IG 306).
56. For a concelebrated Mass, according to IG 207, there is to be one chalice or "several chalices" prepared on the side table. Texts for concelebrants should also be placed in the sanctuary. The concelebrated Mass also has provision for drinking the eucharistic wine through a tube or with a spoon (IG 245), so these may also be required. An extra corporal may be required for the altar, if concelebrants drink from the chalice at the side of the altar (IG 248).
57. For a Mass with only one minister assisting, without a congregation, special instructions are given for the preparations before Mass. The chalice is placed either on the side table near the altar, or on the altar. The missal may be arranged on the left side of the altar (IG 255).
58. A Mass with the Liturgy of the Hours will also require copies of the liturgical books for this.
59. For Mass with Children, the Directory for Masses with Children (DMC) 29 says, "If possible, some of the children should take part in preparing and ornamenting the place of celebration and preparing the chalice with the paten and cruets."
60. Mass with Special Groups (Actio pastoralis, 15 May 1969) gives particular directions for preparing Mass in private homes. The table for a meal after the Mass is not, as far as possible, to be the one where Eucharist is celebrated (DOL 2131). The faculty of allowing Mass outside a place of worship is reserved to the local Ordinary. They only grant this if the place is decent and fitting. A bedroom is always excluded (DOL 2125). According to IG 297 for Mass outside a place of worship, when a table is used, it is always to have a cloth, corporal, cross and candles.
61. For the Stational Mass a more comprehensive list of requirements is given, in CB 125. It includes the texts for the general intercessions, both for the bishop and the deacon. For washing hands there is to be a "basin, pitcher of water, and towel" (in Latin "bacile, urceus aquae et mantile"). The items for the offertory procession, "bread, wine, water and other gifts" are to be in a "convenient place", rather than in the sanctuary.
62. A bishop celebrant should be received at a church by the clergy, either at the church door or the vesting room. (CB 79).
63. When the bishop enters a church, a senior cleric may offer him blessed water and a sprinkler, with which the bishop sprinkles himself and those who accompany him. This is not done when the Penitential Rite of the Mass is replaced by Blessing and Sprinkling of Water. (CB 111).
64. The bishop celebrant may go to the church in procession with clergy, wearing choir dress. If the bishop is not an archbishop, he leads such a procession. But if the bishop is an archbishop, it is lead by an acolyte, carrying a cross. At the door of the church the senior presbyter hands the bishop the sprinkler, (unless the the Penitential Rite of the Mass is replaced by the Blessing and Sprinkling of Water). The bishop sprinkles, returns the sprinkler, goes in procession to the place of reservation of the Blessed Sacrament, prays there and then goes to the vesting room. (CB 79).
65. There he is assisted by deacons and other ministers who have vested beforehand, at least for a Stational Mass (CB 126). The bishop washes his hands, puts on the amice, alb, cincture, pectoral cross, stole, dalmatic and chasuble. A deacon then places the miter on his head. If the bishop is an archbishop, the first deacon hands him the pallium, before the miter is put on.
66. According to IG 111, "All concerned should work in harmony and diligence in the effective preparation of each liturgical celebration in accord with the liturgical books as to its rites, pastoral aspects, and music. They should work under the direction of the rector of the church ..."
67. According to IG 106, at least in cathedrals and major churches, there should be a Master of Ceremonies who is assigned responsibility for planning and carrying out the services properly.
68. For a bishop's Mass, "a master of ceremonies is needed"
(CB 34). "He should seek to ensure an observance of liturgical
laws..." (CB 34). "In due time he should arrange with
cantors, assistants, ministers, and celebrants the actions to
be carried out and texts to be used, but during the celebration
he should exercise the greatest discretion: he is not to speak
more than is necessary, nor replace the deacons or assistants
at the side of the celebrant." (CB 35). The Master of Ceremonies
wears either an alb or a cassock and surplice. If he is a deacon,
he may wear a dalmatic and the other vestments of the deacon.
69. For the basic Mass, with one celebrant and no deacon, the order for the procession to the altar is (IG 120):
a. the thurifier leads, if incense is used
b. ministers with lighted candles and between them an acolyte or other minister with the cross;
c. acolytes and other ministers;
d. a reader, who may carry the Book of the Gospels, but not the Lectionary, slightly elevated.
e. the priest who is to celebrate the Mass.
70. When there is a deacon, he carries the Book of the Gospels, if it is being carried. In the procession he walks next to the priest or in front of him (IG 172).
71. In a concelebrated Mass with a deacon, the concelebrants go ahead of the principle celebrant (IG 210).
72. When there is a concelebrated Mass without a deacon, but with an instituted reader, who would carry the Book of the Gospels? According to IG 194 "when no deacon is present the reader, wearing the appropriate vesture, may carry the Book of the Gospels, in that case he walks in front of the priest". However according to IG 208 "If a deacon is not present at a concelebrated Mass, functions which are proper to him may be performed by concelebrants." Since the task is specifically given to the instituted reader it would seem more appropriate for him to carry the Book of the Gospels, going in front of the concelebrants in the procession.
73. For Mass with Children, according to DMC 40 "It is sometimes proper to omit one or other element of the introductory rite..". So it seems that a decision could be made not to have an entrance procession. DMC 33 recommends that Conferences of Bishops consider special adaptions of processions for children.
74. For Mass combined with the Liturgy of the Hours "the whole celebration may begin either with the introductory verse and hymn [of the Liturgy of the Hours] .... or with the entrance song, procession, and celebrant's greeting ...; one of the introductory rites is thus omitted." It seems that the procession could be omitted. With a bishop, however, the Liturgy of the Hours is described as having an entrance procession (CB 193) although "necessary adaptions" may be made (CB 209).
75. In a Mass with a bishop celebrant, he walks behind the priests, but preceding his assisting ministers.
76. At a Mass in which the Bishop presides, but does not celebrate, he walks behind the celebrant, followed by his two deacons (or presbyter assistants, if there are no deacons). Behind them, are his ministers, who assist with the book, the miter, and the pastoral staff (CB 81, 177).
77. For the Stational Mass (according to CB 128) the order
of procession is:
78. Surprisingly this omits the instituted readers. Perhaps they would carry candles with the instituted acolytes.
79. For Mass with a bishop, according to CB 107 "concelebrants and ministers keep their hands joined when walking from place to place or when standing, unless they are holding something."
80. A footnote to CB 107 has: ""Hands joined" means: "Holding the palms sideward and together before the breast, with the right thumb crossed over the left." The expression "palms sideward" is an unusual translation of "palmas extensas", meaning "palms extended". [The text from Caeremoniale Episcoporum (Liberia Editrice Vaticana, 1995) page 35, footnote 80: "Palmas extensas ac simul iunctas ante pectus habere, pollice dexterae super sinistro in crucis modum posito". ] This means that the palm is to be extended, so the fingers will be extended and joined together, as well as the palms of the hands.
81. The requirement to have "hands joined" does not appear in IG, and so is only required for Mass with a bishop (following IG 112). An alternative to having hands joined is to be holding something. This could be a Mass book, hymn book or other participation aid. Bishops could encourage or discourage this, in their diocese, following IG 107.
82. According to IG 43, the faithful should stand from the beginning of the opening song or when the priest enters.
83. Songs should be sung during the following processions: the entrance, the Gospel, presentation of the gifts, and communion (IG 44). According to IG 47, the entrance song begins as the priest comes in, to accompany the procession.
84. According to IG 48, the entrance song may be sung by the choir alone, the people or alternately. Sung "alternately" is by the choir and people, or by the cantor and people. The song is to have the text approved by the Conference of Bishops, or be from the Gradulae Romanum or The Simple Gradual.
85. According to DMC 32, "recorded music may also be used in Masses with children, in accord with norms established by the conferences of bishops".
86. If there is no singing, the Entrance Antiphon from the Missal is recited by the faithful, by some of them, by the reader, or by the celebrant (IG 48). The celebrant may incorporate the Entrance Antiphon into his introductory remarks.
87. According to IG 275, a bow (or inclination) of the head
88. There are no restrictions regarding who is to do this, so presumably it is done by everyone, not just the celebrant or person speaking the name. Nor are there restrictions on when this is to be done, so presumably it is done whenever the names are said during the Mass - in a song, an antiphon, a reading, a homily, a prayer, etc.
89. According to IG 42, regarding gestures and posture, "greater attention needs to be paid to what is laid down by liturgical law and by the traditional practice of the Roman Rite". This extraordinary admonition may reflect concerns about failure to observe this gesture.
90. According to IG 49, the priest, deacon and ministers profoundly bow to the altar when they enter the sanctuary. The priest and deacon kiss the altar.
91. The profound bow is made "on reaching the altar" by the priest and ministers (IG 122). The cross carried in the entrance procession, is set aside, or (if there is not another cross) it becomes the altar cross. The candlesticks, carried by the ministers, are placed on or near the altar. The Book of the Gospels is placed on the altar.
92. It would seem that the profound bow is made to the altar after the ministers have placed the items they are carrying on, or near, the altar - rather than while carrying them.
93. For Mass with a deacon, it is explained that when the deacon is not carrying the Book of the Gospels, "he customarily makes a profound bow to the altar with the priest alone, and then with him venerates the altar with a kiss." (IG 173). Thus it seems that the bow is to be made in pairs, rather than all together.
94. When the deacon is carrying the Book of the Gospels "he omits the reverence and goes up to the altar, places the Book of the Gospels on it, and then kisses the altar with the priest" (IG 173).
95. For a concelebrated Mass, according to IG 211, the concelebrants and celebrant "make a profound bow, kiss the altar and then go to their designated chairs."
96. For Mass with a bishop, according to CB 70 "Neither a genuflection nor a deep bow is made by those who are carrying articles used in a celebration, for example, the cross, candlesticks, the Book of the Gospels." It may seem surprising that IG has not completely included this. IG 274 has "Ministers who are carrying the processional cross or the candles bow their heads in place of a genuflection." But it does not make provision for similarly replacing a deep bow with bow of the head. It makes no exception for those carrying items, apparently requiring the deep bow after the carried items have been put in place.
97. For a Stational Mass, on entering the sanctuary "all make a deep bow to the altar, two by two." (CB 130). When the bishop reaches the altar he "hands the staff to a minister and takes off the miter. Together with the deacons and other ministers accompanying him, the bishop makes a deep bow to the altar, then goes up to the altar and, together with the two deacons assisting him, kisses it." (CB 131).
98. The Stational Mass has the option of the candles being
put on the side table, but this has not been retained in IG 122,
for Masses without a Bishop, which requires them to be put on
or near the altar.
99. According to IG 274:
100. It seems that the genuflection is made before the the deep bow to the altar. The genuflection is made "when they approach ... the altar" (IG 274) whereas the deep bow is made "on reaching the altar" (IG 122).
101. GIRM 84 had "On reaching the altar the priest and ministers make the proper reverence, that is, a low bow or, if there is a tabernacle containing the blessed sacrament, a genuflection." But IG 122 has changed this paragraph so only the bow is mentioned. So it is no longer a case of the genuflection replacing the bow, but of both being required.
102. For Mass at which a bishop presides, but does not celebrate, the instructions may be different. According to CB 177 "Upon reaching the altar, the celebrant or concelebrants make a deep bow, but if the blessed sacrament is reserved in the sanctuary, they genuflect." Perhaps the "but" should be translated as "and". This would be more consistent with CB 72: "A deep bow is made to the altar by all who enter the sanctuary".
103. The Stational Mass does not mention genuflecting to the Blessed Sacrament in the tabernacle, perhaps assuming that it will not be in the sanctuary. It does have: "There is neither a stop nor a genuflection if the procession passes in front of the blessed sacrament chapel." (CB 128).
104. According to IG 276, the use of incense is optional at
any form of Mass:
105. If incense is used, the priest puts some in the thurible before the procession begins and blesses it with the sign of the cross, without saying anything (IG 120). The thurifer leads the entrance procession. After the priest kisses the altar, if incense is used, he incenses the cross and altar. (IG 123).
106. When the cross is on or beside the altar, it is incensed before the altar, with three swings (IG 277). Otherwise the cross is incensed when the priest passes in front of the cross.
107. According to the Latin, for the altar, single thrusts are used "singulis ictibus". For the cross there are three swings "tribus ductibus". The unapproved English translations of Caeremoniale Episcoporum and Institutio Generalis - CB and IG - use the term "swing" to translate both "ictibus" and "ductibus". So it seems more accurate to translate "ictibus" as "thrust" and "ductibus" as "swing".
108. According to IG 277, the altar is incensed with single
thrusts of the thurible in this way:
109. Relics and images exposed for public veneration are incensed with two swings "at the beginning of the celebration, at the moment when the altar is being incensed" (IG 277).
110. For Mass with a deacon, the deacon assists the priest in placing incense in the thurible and incensing the cross and the altar (IG 173). This occurs after the altar has been kissed.
111. More detailed instructions for using incense are given in CB, which apply in a Mass with a bishop if incense is used.
112. When carrying the thurible, it is held in the right hand, with the thumb in the ring at the top, the middle finger holds the chain so the cover is raised, and the boat is carried in the left hand. (CB 74, footnote 66).
113. To give the thurible to the bishop, either one or two acolytes go to the bishop with the thurible and boat. If one goes, he carries the thurible in the left hand with the boat in the right. The deacon takes the boat and presents it to the bishop who adds the incense to the thurible. After the blessing, the deacon returns the boat to the acolyte and takes the thurible from him. He hands the thurible to the bishop placing the top of the thurible chain in the bishop's left hand and the thurible end of the chain in the bishop's right hand. (CB 90).
114. For Mass with a bishop it is made clear that "Relics and images exposed for public veneration are incensed after the incensation of the altar" and that they are only incensed at the beginning of the celebration. (CB 95).
115. According to CB 86, incense should be used at the Stational Mass of the bishop. There is a surprising difference for the Stational Mass regarding who adds incense. According to CB 131, "If necessary, fresh incense is placed in the censer by an acolyte". However IG 173 has the deacon assisting the priest in adding incense. It seems that for Mass without a bishop, incense is added by the priest after the altar is kissed (following IG 173). But for Mass with a bishop the incense is only added when necessary, and then by an acolyte (following CB 131).
116. For the Stational Mass it is made clear that when the bishop incenses the altar and cross he is accompanied by the two deacons assisting him (CB 131).
117. Standing at the chair, the priest makes the sign of the cross together with the whole assembly (IG 50). If a minister is holding a book, it will need to be held in the left hand. A detailed description of how a bishop makes the sign of the cross is given in CB 108: he places his left hand on his chest, unless holding something, holds the palm of the right hand turned toward himself, with all the fingers joined and held straight, and makes the sign of the cross by moving his hand from forehead to chest and from left shoulder to right.
118. According to IG 275 and CB 68, a bow of the head is to be made when the three divine persons are named (as well as at the name of Jesus, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and the saint in whose honour Mass is celebrated). However descriptions of the sign of the cross do not include bowing the head. Perhaps this point could be regulated by bishops for their diocese.
119. The usual response to the greeting is "And also with you". However for the greeting "The grace and peace of God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ be with you" the response is "Blessed be God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ."
120. For Mass without a congregation, with only one minister, the priest bows to the altar, makes the sign of the cross, greets the minister and then kisses the altar. (IG 257).
121. For Mass combined with Morning Prayer or Evening Prayer (from the Liturgy of the Hours) the "entrance song, procession, and celebrant's greeting" may be replaced by the introduction and hymn of the Liturgy of the Hours. (GILH 94, 96)
122. After the greeting "the priest, the deacon, or another minister" may introduce the faithful to the Mass. (IG 50).
123. For a Stational Mass this is done by "the bishop himself, a deacon, or one of the concelebrants" (CB 132). The exclusion of the lay minister does not seem to apply for a normal Mass with the bishop (following CB 173), but only for the Stational Mass and Mass at which the bishop presides but does not celebrate (following CB 179).
124. According to IG 51-52:
125. The 1975 English translation of the Order of Mass had in the rubrics (about sprinkling with water): "The Kyrie is also omitted." It seems that this will be changed, so that the Kyrie is not omitted when there is a sprinkling.
126. The Stational Mass omits the Kyrie when there is a sprinkling (CB 134).
127. There are three forms of the penitential rite (at least in the 1975 Roman Missal). Only the third form (which resembles the Kyrie) may be led by a deacon or minister, with the celebrant then saying the final words. (CB 132).
128. If the "I Confess" is used, all strike their chest at the words "through my own fault".
129. The Kyrie is "ordinarily prayed by all, that is, alternately by the congregation and the choir or cantor" (IG 52). The acclamations may be repeated twice or more, and when sung as part of the penitential act, a trope may be inserted before each acclamation (IG 52).
130. For Mass with only one minister, without a congregation, the priest says the Kyrie "in keeping with the rubrics" (IG 258).
131. For Mass with the Liturgy of the Hours, the Kyrie is optional (GILH 94 - 96).
132. For Mass with Children, the Kyrie was optional, in DMC 40. However this seems to have been reversed by IG 52: "Then the Kyrie always begins ...".
133. According to IG 53 the singing of the Gloria may be begun by the priest, cantor or choir. It is sung by the choir alone, by everyone together or alternately - by the people with the choir. If not sung, the Gloria is said by all or by two parts of the congregation responding to each other. The Gloria is sung or said on Sundays outside of Lent and Advent, special more solemn celebrations, Solemnities, and Feasts.
134. For Mass with Children, according to DMC 31, "To facilitate the children's participation in singing the ... Gloria ... it is permissible to use with the melodies appropriate vernacular texts, accepted by competent authority, even if they do not correspond exactly to the liturgical texts." However this seems to have been reversed by IG 53, which has "The text of this hymn is not to be replaced by any other."
135. It is highlighted, for the Stational Mass, that "During the Gloria all stand." (CB 135).
136. The Opening Prayer is the first of "the presidential prayers" which is given by the priest (IG 30). Everyone present listens with attention, there should be no other prayer or liturgical song, and the organ or other instruments should not be played (IG 32). After the invitation Let us Pray all pray in silence. [The English translations of the GIRM 32 and IG 54 seem to have omitted part of the sentence emphasising this: "et omnes una cum sacerdote parumper silent, ut conscii fiant se in conspectu Dei stare, et vota sua in animo possint nuncupare".]
137. The Opening Prayer should always end with "for ever and ever" (or "per omnia saecula saeculorum") to which the response is "Amen". The 1975 GIRM 11 (DOL 1401) had:
139. This has been replaced by IG 31:
140. So the provision for the celebrant to change the words of introduction and conclusion has been removed.
141. For a "Mass with adults at which children also participate", according to DMC 17, it is permissible "to celebrate the liturgy of the word, including a homily, with the children in a separate, but not too distant, room. Then, before the eucharistic liturgy begins, the children are led to a place where the adults have meanwhile celebrated their own liturgy of the word."
142. After the Opening Prayer all sit (IG 128). According to CB 109, when the bishop is seated he places his palms on his knees. This is not mentioned in the IG, and ministers are not directed to do so in the CB. However bishops could regulate on this, for a more uniform posture, following IG 107.
143. The priest may introduce the Liturgy of the Word.
144. Then the reader goes to the ambo and reads from the Lectionary placed there before Mass.
145. According to IG 101 "In the absence of an instituted reader, other lay people may be designated to proclaim the readings ...". Only men can be instituted readers (Code of Canon Law, Canon 230), they are instituted by the bishop in a liturgical rite (after writing to request it), and must wear vestments (LM 54).
146. According to LM 111 "In the Liturgical Assembly the word of God must always be read either from the Latin texts prepared by the Holy See or from vernacular translations approved by the conferences of bishops for liturgical use, according to existing norms."
147. The Lectionary has rubrics which are not to be read aloud. The reader does not proclaim "First Sunday of Advent", "Year B", "First Reading", "Isaiah 63:16-17; 64:1.3-8", or the heading "Oh that you would tear the heavens apart and come down". All that is proclaimed before the reading, in this example, is "A reading from the prophet Isaiah". This is clear from Notitae 14 (1978) 303, no 5 (in Documents on the Liturgy, page 491).
148. According to LM 125 "the words for the reader This is the word of the Lord, or similar words suited to local custom, are to be printed at the end of the reading for use by the reader." Thus the reader must use the words printed in the approved Lectionary. There are no instructions to hold up the book when saying these words.
149. At the end of the reading there may be a brief period of silence for all to meditate on what has been heard (IG 128).
150. For Mass without a deacon or suitable reader, the priest may do the readings (IG 59).
151. For Mass with a deacon "if there is no qualified reader present" the deacon may do the readings, as well as the Gospel.
152. For a concelebrated Mass "if there are no other ministers present" their tasks may be done by suitable faithful or by concelebrants, so they could do the readings.
153. For Mass with only one minister (without a congregation) the minister "reads the first reading and psalm, the second reading, when it is to be said, and the Alleluia verse or other chant" (IG 261). This changes the instruction of GIRM 217 which had "the minister or the priest himself" could do these readings. Unfortunately the English translation did not include this change. The term for the priest "sacerdos" has been removed from the Latin: "Dicta collecta, minister legit primam lectionem et psalmum, et, quando dicenda est, secundam lectionem atque versum ad Alleluia vel alterum cantum." (IG 261).
154. For this Mass, the location of the readings is complicated. According to IG 58 "In the celebration of the Mass with a congregation, the readings are always given from the ambo" using the term "ex ambone" in the Latin. But for Mass without a congregation: "As often as possible, the readings should be delivered from the ambo or a lectern." (IG 260). This uses the terms "ex ambone vel ex pluteo". In English the terms "ambo" and "lectern" have been used interchangably. Perhaps "pluteo" should be translated as "a stand", as "pluteus" has been translated, in GIRM 272 and IG 309. According to a reply in Notitiae 14 (1978) 302, no. 3 (DOL page 520) "In the very exceptional case when not even a bench can be set up, the priest may stay at the altar, where the missal and lectionary are set on a reading stand." According to IG 257, after kissing the altar the priest "turns to the missal at the left side of the altar, and remains there until the end of the general intercessions". This seems to require the priest to remain at the altar when he reads the Gospel.
155. For Mass with Children: "If three or even two readings appointed on Sundays or weekdays can be understood by children only with difficulty, it is permissible to read two or only one of them, but the reading of the gospel should never be omitted." (DMC 42).
156. According to DMC 47, "When the text of the reading lends itself to this, it may be helpful to have the children read it with parts distributed among them, as provided for the reading of the Lord's Passion during Holy Week." However this provision seems to have been removed, by IG 109: "it is not at all appropriate that several persons divide a single element of the celebration among themselves, e.g., that the same reading is divided into two parts for two readers, unless it is Passion of the Lord".
157. For the Stational Mass, after the reading "The reader retires and there is a brief pause for all to reflect on what they have heard. Then the psalmist or cantor or reader sings or recites the psalm...". This indicates that, at least for the Stational Mass, the reader is required to sit (or at least leave the ambo) for the period of reflection.
158. According to IG 309, "The readings, responsorial psalm and Easter Proclamation (Exsultet) are proclaimed only from the ambo." LM 22 says specifically that the psalm is to be sung or recited at the ambo/lectern.
159. It is surprising that this is not reflected in IG 61. This repeats GIRM 36 by saying the psalm is from the "ambo/lectern or other suitable place" - "ambone vel alio loco apto". Perhaps this is to make provision for situations where there is no ambo.
160. The psalmist should sing the psalm (IG 102). The term "cantor of the psalm" is unhelpful, because it confuses the psalmist, with the cantor who leads the hymns. According to CB 51, LM 33, GIRM 272 "the cantor should not use the ambo/lectern". But this refers to leading hymns, not the responsorial psalm. IG 309 attempts to make this clearer: "The dignity of the ambo requires that only a minister of the word should approach it".
161. According to IG 61 "It is appropriate that the Responsorial Psalm be sung, at least as far as the people's response is concerned." The psalm may be sung "straight through" without a response, but as a rule the people sing the response. The psalm may be sung "straight through" either by the psalmist alone or by everyone (LM 20).
162. If the psalm cannot be sung, it should be recited "in a way more suited to fostering meditation". But the option of omitting the response ("straight through") only seems to be for singing the psalm, in LM 20 and IG 61.
163. In the absence of a psalmist, an instituted reader sings or reads the psalm between the readings. (IG 99).
164. According to GIRM 38b, the psalm could be omitted during Lent, but this is changed in IG 63b so that it is always required. According to IG 57, it is not permitted to substitute the word of the God (in the readings and Responsorial Psalm) by non-biblical texts.
165. If there is a second reading, there may be time to reflect on it, so the faithful should not stand directly after it. Either they should be told to stand for the Alleluia or they should stand when the singing begins.
166. According to IG 62, the Alleluia (or other verse before the Gospel) is sung by all standing, led by either the choir or a cantor, and if appropriate, it may be repeated. The verse itself is sung either by the choir or by the cantor (IG 62).
167. According to LM 23 "The Alleluia or verse before the gospel must be sung and during it all stand." Similarly in CB 140 "When the Alleluia begins, everyone ... stands."
168. Outside Lent, the Alleluia is sung. During Lent, the verse before the Gospel is sung. Both may be taken from the Lectionary or the Graduale.
169. According to IG 63, when there is only one reading before the Gospel, the Alleluia, or the verse before the gospel "may be omitted if it is not sung". This could always be done according to GIRM 39, but IG 63 now only allows this when there is only one reading before the Gospel.
170. According to IG 64 "The Sequence is optional, except on Easter Sunday and Pentecost. It is sung after the Alleluia."
171. The singing is to accompany the Gospel procession (IG 44). The following descriptions include the use of incense (which is optional).
172. For Mass without a deacon or concelebrants (IG 132 - 134):
173. During the singing of the Alleluia, the priest puts incense in the thurible and blesses it.
174. With hands joined he makes a profound bow before the altar and inaudibly says Almighty God, cleanse my heart.
175. If the Book of the Gospels is carried from the altar to the ambo it is held up by the priest. The lay ministers who carry the thurible and candles walk ahead of him.
176. All present turn towards the ambo.
177. When the priest says "A reading from the Holy Gospel..." he makes the sign of the cross with his thumb on the book, his forehead, mouth and chest. Everyone else does this as well. The priest then incenses the book with three swings.
178. For Mass With a Deacon (IG 175): The deacon assists the priest when he puts incense in the censer during the singing of the Alleluia or other chant. The deacon makes a profound bow to the presiding priest. The deacon makes the sign of the cross when he is blessed.
179. For Mass With Concelebrants: If there is no deacon, the Gospel is read by one of the concelebrants, not by the celebrant (IG 59).
180. Mass with only one minister, without a congregation: If the minister is a deacon he reads the Gospel (IG 253). If not, it is read by the priest (IG 262). It is unclear where the priest reads from, since IG 260 suggests the ambo, but IG 257 suggests at the altar.
181. For Mass with Children: It is permissible to choose readings directly from the Bible, rather than from the Lectionary. (DMC 43). If there is only the Gospel reading, the Alleluia may be sung after the homily, instead of before the Gospel (DMC 46).
182. For a Stational Mass (CB 140 - 141):
183. At the Alleluia, the bishop remains seated, when everyone else stands. The thurifer presents the thurible, a deacon (or assisting priest in his absence) presents the incense boat to the bishop. After blessing the deacon, the Bishop takes off the miter and stands.
184. At the altar, the deacon is joined by the thurifer and acolytes with lighted candles. The deacon bows to the altar, takes the Book of the Gospels, and without further reverence to the altar, carries the book to the ambo, preceded by the thurifer and acolytes with candles.
185. The bishop takes the staff when the three crosses are made.
186. After the reading the deacon may kiss the book himself, or take it to the bishop for him to kiss it.
187. According to IG 175, "the bishop may impart a blessing to the people with the Book of the Gospels".
188. Everyone sits for the homily. It seems this should happen after the book has been kissed and when the deacon and other ministers have returned to their place (CB 141), rather than after saying "Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ".
189. According to IG 66, the homily may be given by the priest celebrant, a concelebrant, a deacon, or by a Bishop or priest who is present but cannot concelebrate. It can never be given by a lay person. In Masses with a congregation on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation, the homily may only be omitted for a grave reason. It is commended on other days.
190. For Mass with Children, "With the consent of the pastor or rector of the church, one of the adults may speak to the children after the gospel..." (DMC 24). Also "Sometimes the homily intended for children should become a dialogue with them" (DMC 48).
191. For a Stational Mass, the bishop gives the homily "seated in the chair (cathedra), unless he prefers another place in order to be seen and heard by all" (CB 142). He may use the miter and staff. A priest gives the homily standing at the chair, ambo, or another suitable place (IG 136).
192. After the homily there may be a period of silence (IG 136).
193. All stand for the Profession of Faith (IG 43).
194. According to IG 68, the Profession of Faith is sung or said on Sundays and Solemnities. It may be said on special, more solemn celebrations.
195. The singing of the Profession of Faith may be begun by the priest, cantor or choir. It is sung by everyone together or alternately - by the people with the choir.
196. If not sung, the Profession of Faith is said, either by all or by two parts of the congregation responding to each other.
197. According to IG 137, during the profession of faith all make a profound bow at the words By the power of the Holy Spirit etc. According to the 1975 Order of Mass, this is done for the words By the power of the Holy Spirit he was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man. On the solemnities of the Annunciation of the Lord and Christmas, all kneel instead of making the profound bow.
198. For Mass with Children, according to DMC 31, "To facilitate the children's participation in singing the ... Credo ... it is permissible to use with the melodies appropriate vernacular texts, accepted by competent authority, even if they do not correspond exactly to the liturgical texts." The question this raises is who is a "competent authority". IG 67 has added "a formula approved for liturgical use" to what GIRM 43 had on the Profession of Faith.
199. Also, for Mass with Children, "the Apostles' Creed may be used with children" (DMC 49).
200. According to IG 69, "It is appropriate that this prayer be included in all Masses celebrated with a congregation ...". [The English study translation omitted this sentence, but it is in the Latin text, and remains the same as the last sentence of GIRM 45.]
201. The people are to be standing. They either make a response after each intercession, or pray in silence (IG 71). The priest celebrant directs the general intercessions from the chair. He introduces them with a brief remark which invites the faithful to pray.
202. "As a rule, the intentions are announced from the ambo or another suitable place, either by the deacon or cantor, or even by the reader or a member of the lay faithful." (IG 71). It is interesting to note that no provision is made for several people to queue up and read one intention each. Nor, following IG 109, is it appropriate for one person to read the first part of the intention and then have a cantor finish it.
203. IG 138, makes the additional point that the intentions are announced, "while facing the people".
204. According to IG 70, "As a rule the sequence of intentions
is to be:
205. For Mass with a deacon, "the deacon ... announces the intentions of the general intercessions..." (IG 94). This is also reflected in IG 197 "When no deacon is present ... the reader may announce the intentions".
206. For Mass without a congregation, with only one minister, according to IG 264, the priest gives the intentions and the minister makes the response.
207. For Mass with Morning Prayer, from the Liturgy of the Hours, "on weekdays, at Mass in the morning, the intercessions of morning prayer may replace the daily form of the general intercessions at Mass." (GILH 94).
208. For Mass with Special Groups (n. 6h): "The general intercessions ... may be adapted ... Care is to be taken against complete omission of the general intentions for the Church, the world, brothers and sisters beset by needs, and the assembly present. Those present at the rite may add some particular intention, properly prepared ahead of time." [Actio Pastoralis, 15 May 1969, n 6h. Documents on the Liturgy (Minnesota, Liturgical Press, 1982) page 674.]
209. For Mass with a Bishop "when no deacon is present, the reader announces the intentions of the general intercessions" (CB 31).
210. For a Stational Mass: "one of the deacons, the cantor, a reader, or some other person announces the intercessions" (CB 144).
211. No provision is made for the general intercessions to include a prayer said by everyone, such as the Hail Mary or a parish prayer. It would be surprising if the Apostolic See even permitted the Hail Mary as an inculturation experiment (following IG 395) since according to the 1994 Instruction on the Roman Liturgy and Inculturation, n 45: "The introduction of devotional practices into liturgical celebrations under the pretext of inculturation cannot be allowed "because by its nature, (the liturgy) is superior to them." (Footnote: Sacrosanctum Concilium, n 13)". Also in Marialis Cultus, n 48, Pope Paul VI wrote: "it is a mistake to recite the rosary during the celebration of the liturgy".
212. The priest concludes the general intercessions with a
prayer (IG 71, 138). After the intercessions, all sit (IG 139).
213. For the basic Mass, with one celebrant and no deacon, "An acolyte, or other lay minister arranges the corporal, purificator, the chalice, the pall and missal upon the altar." (IG 139).
214. GIRM 100 had "The servers place the corporal, purificator, chalice, and missal on the altar." The pall has been added to this list, so is it compulsory? Not according to IG 118, which has the pall prepared "if useful". Surprisingly IG 306 does not include the pall in the list of items that may be placed on the altar. It has: "from the presentation of the gifts until the cleansing of the vessels, only the chalice with the paten, the pyx as necessary, and finally, the corporal, purificator and missal." It appears that IG 139 contradicts IG 306 on this point, so bishops may need to resolve this issue for their diocese.
215. The chalice veil is not included in the list of items that may be placed on the altar (IG 306). If is used, perhaps it would be removed at the side table. Alternatively it could be removed at the altar and immediately taken to the side table.
216. For Mass with a deacon, "the deacon prepares the altar, assisted by the acolyte, but the care of the sacred vessels belongs to the deacon." (IG 178).
217. For a concelebrated Mass (without a deacon), this is done by the "acolyte or other lay minister" since IG 214 says IG 139 is to be followed. Only if there were no lay ministers would a concelebrant prepare the altar, following IG 208. Depending on how the Eucharist wine is drunk, a concelebrated Mass may require several chalices (IG 207) and two corporals (IG 249) on the altar.
218. For Mass without a congregation, with only one minister, according to IG 265, "In the Eucharistic liturgy, everything is done as at Mass with the People, except ...". There is no exception made for preparing the altar. Therefore, even if the chalice and missal were placed at the side of the altar before Mass, the minister would arrange the corporal, purificator, etc.
219. For Mass with a bishop, according to CB 172 - 173: "In the absence of a deacon, a presbyter should proclaim the gospel reading and minister at the altar; if he is not to concelebrate he wears an alb and stole. Everything described in the General Instruction of the Roman Missal for the celebration of Mass with a congregation should be observed. (Footnote: See GIRM 77-152)." The priest is to "minister at the altar", but he is not a deacon. Therefore it seems that the acolyte, or other lay minister, arranges the altar following GIRM 100, 145 and IG 139, 190.
220. For a Stational Mass, the deacons and acolytes arrange the corporal, purificator etc. (CB 145).
221. According to IG 139, "if there is a procession of the gifts, the liturgical song for the preparation of the gifts begins". This requires that there be a song to accompany the procession, although there may be a song without the procession (IG 74).
222. The song may be sung by the choir alone, the people or alternately. Sung alternately is by the choir and people, or by the cantor and people. The song is to have the text approved by the Conference of Bishops, or be from the Gradulae Romanum or The Simple Gradual. (IG 74).
223. According to IG 73 "This is the time to receive money or other gifts for the poor or the Church brought by the faithful or collected at the Mass". No provision is made for a second collection at another time.
224. If there is a procession, the bread and wine are received by the celebrant, assisted by the deacon, acolyte or other minister. (IG 178, IG 140).
225. For a Stational Mass, "the faithful should present the bread and wine ... and even other gifts to meet the needs of the Church and of the poor". The deacons or the bishop receives the gifts of the faithful at a convenient place." (CB 145).
226. At the altar, a minister hands the celebrant the paten with the bread (IG 141). This is done by a deacon (IG 178), or in his absence by an acolyte or other lay minister (IG 190), or in their absence by a concelebrant (IG 208). The priest holds it above the altar, and prays silently, before placing the paten on the corporal. Only if there is no offertory song, and the organ is not played, may the prayer be said aloud, to which the people respond Blessed be God for ever. (IG 142).
227. Next the chalice with wine and water is placed on the corporal.
228. For the basic Mass, without deacon or concelebrants, the priest stands at the side of the altar and the minister presents the cruets (IG 142). The cruets are not placed on the altar (IG 306). The priest prays inaudibly while adding the wine and a little water to the chalice.
229. For Mass with a deacon, according to IG 178, the deacon "pours wine and a little water into the chalice saying inaudibly: By the mystery of this water and wine, then passes the chalice to the priest. He may also make this preparation of the chalice at the side table." If this is done at the altar, the deacon will be presented with the cruets of wine and water.
230. For a concelebrated Mass, the concelebrants remain at their places (IG 214). Only if there were no other ministers would the concelebrants perform the functions of the deacon or lay minister (IG 208).
231. For Mass with a bishop, "in the absence of a deacon, a presbyter should ... minister at the altar; if he is not to concelebrate, he wears an alb and stole" (CB 172). It seems that such a priest, not concelebrating, should perform the tasks of the deacon.
232. After placing the chalice on the altar the celebrant bows and prays inaudibly With humble and contrite hearts. Then, if incense is used, a minister presents the thurible (IG 144 - 145).
233. For the Basic Mass, the priest puts incense in the thurible and incenses the gifts, the cross, and altar (IG 144). Then "A minister, standing at the side of the altar, incenses the priest and then the people". When incensing the priest and people there are three swings of the thurible (IG 277). This is done by an acolyte, if present (IG 190).
234. For Mass with a deacon, "the deacon assist the priest with the incensation of the gifts, the cross and the altar; afterward he, or the acolyte, incenses the priest and the people" (IG 178).
235. For a concelebrated Mass, the concelebrants would only do the incensing in the absence of a deacon and other ministers (IG 208). Surprisingly, IG makes no mention of incensing the concelebrants as a body. According to IG 276 "the priest and the people" "sacerdotem et populum" are incensed.
236. No mention is made of people standing to be incensed in IG. On the contrary, IG 43 and IG 146 say they should sit during the preparation of the gifts and stand for the prayer after it.
237. For Mass with a bishop, different and more detailed instructions are given.
238. To give the thurible to the bishop, either one or two acolytes go to the bishop with the thurible and boat. If one goes, he carries the thurible in the left hand with the boat in the right. The deacon takes the boat and presents it to the bishop who adds the incense to the thurible. After the blessing, the deacon returns the boat to the acolyte and takes the thurible from him. He hands the thurible to the bishop placing the top of the thurible chain in the bishop's left hand and the thurible end of the chain in the bishop's right hand. (CB 90).
239. When incensing with the thurible, the top of the chain is held in the left hand near the chest, and the chain near the thurible is held in the right hand, so the thurible can be swung back and forth easily with a measured beat. (CB 91, footnote 75).
240. According to CB 96, the bishop is incensed standing. The concelebrants are incensed as a body by the deacon, but no mention is made of them standing. Then the deacon incenses "the people from the place most convenient" rather than at the side of the altar. (Again there is no mention of them standing).
241. For the Stational Mass, "The bishop receives the censer from the deacon and, in the same way as at the beginning of Mass and accompanied by a deacon, incenses the gifts, as well as the altar and the cross. After this, all rise, and a deacon, standing at the side of the altar, incenses the bishop, who stands without the miter, then the concelebrants, then the people." (CB 149). It seems that a unique feature of the Stational Mass is that all stand when the thurible is passed from the bishop to the deacon.
242. After the inaudible prayer, With humble and contrite hearts, or after the incensation, the celebrant washes his hands at the side of the altar and prays inaudibly, as the minister pours the water (IG 145).
243. The celebrant returns to the middle of the altar and invites the people to pray. "The people stand and make their response: May the Lord accept this sacrifice ..." (IG 146).
244. For the Stational Mass, "the ministers with a pitcher of water, basin, and towel go to him as he stands without the miter at the side of the altar. He washes and dries his hands. One of the deacons may remove the bishop's ring. ... Having dried his hands and put on his ring, the bishop returns to the middle of the altar." (CB 150).
245. After the Prayer Over the Gifts, the concelebrants come near the altar and stand around it (IG 215).
246. According to IG 147, the Eucharistic Prayer is proclaimed by the priest alone. The people respond during the Preface dialogue, the Sanctus, the acclamation after the consecration, and the Amen after the final doxology. They can also say other acclamations which are approved by the Conference of Bishops and confirmed by the Holy See.
247. Following the Preface there is the Acclamation (also called the Sanctus or Holy, Holy, Holy..). According to IG 79, the whole congregation, with the celebrant, sing or recite the Sanctus.
248. According to IG 43, the faithful "should kneel at the consecration, except when prevented by reasons of health, lack of space, the number of people present or some other good reason." Those who do not kneel at the consecration ought to make a profound bow when the priest genuflects after the consecration. Where it is the custom that the people remain kneeling from the end of the Sanctus until the end of the Eucharistic Prayer, this is retained. The faithful should obey the directions given (according to whatever is in the liturgical books) by a deacon, lay minister or the priest.
249. According to IG 390, "It is up to the Conferences
of Bishops, once their acts have been given the recognito
of the Apostolic See, to define for introduction into the Missal
itself the adaptions which are indicated in this General Insitutio
and in the order of Mass, such as:
250. If the faithful were to "kneel at the consecration", how could this be done? Perhaps all could follow IG 179 "As a general rule, from the epiclesis until the elevation of the chalice the deacon remains kneeling". They would stand when the celebrant genuflects after he shows the chalice to the people.
251. In the 1975 Order of Mass, for four Eucharistic Prayers, the Epiclesis are indicated by the rubric instruction "hands outstreched over the offering". This indicates when the deacons kneel. The words in each Eucharistic Prayer preceding this are:
252. According to IG 150 "A little before the consecration, a minister may ring a bell as a signal to the faithful". This could occur at the same time, signalling to the faithful when to kneel.
253. The prevention from kneeling "for reasons of health" (IG 43) is open to wide interpretation. Many could regard kneeling itself as unhealthy. Perhaps kneeling without a padded kneeler is regarded as unhealthy by some. Others may see it as only applying to those with injuries. The alternative to kneeling seems to be to stand, but most people would be inclined to sit, rather than be the only ones standing. Bishops may need to regulate on these issues.
254. According to IG 150, "Depending on local custom, the minister also rings the bell at the showing of both the Eucharistic bread and the chalice. If incense is used, a minister incenses the host and chalice when they are shown to the people after the consecration." This is done with three swings of the thurible (IG 277). A profound bow is made before and after the incensation. (IG 277).
255. According to IG 179, "If there are several deacons present, one of them" places incense in the thurible at the consecration and then incenses at the showing of the host and chalice. This implies that if one deacon is present another minister may do the incensing.
256. For Mass with a Bishop, CB 94 states that the Blessed Sacrament is incensed from a kneeling position. This is not specifically stated in IG, but is implied by the directions on posture.
257. According to IG 237, the celebrant and concelebrants extend their hands for the Lord's prayer. No provision is made for this (or anything else) to be done by the deacon or lay faithful.
258. According to IG 82 "The form for giving the sign
of peace is left to the Conference of Bishops to determine".
260. At least as translated, these instructions are confusing and seem to be contradictory. No 1 suggests exchanging the sign of peace is optional, No 3 that it is compulsory. No 1 requires the priest remain in the sanctuary, but No 2 allows him to exchange the sign of peace with the faithful, who would not normally be in the sanctuary.
261. Conferences of Bishops may clarify this and introduce adaptions for the Order of Mass and introduction of the missal (IG 390).
262. For Mass with a deacon "he may invite all to exchange the sign of peace" (IG 181).
263. For a concelebrated Mass, "After a deacon, or in his absence, one of the concelebrants says the invitation Let us offer one another a sign of peace, all exchange the sign of peace with each other. The concelebrants who are nearer the presiding celebrant receive the sign of peace from him ahead of the deacon." (IG 239).
264. For Mass with only one minister, without a congregation, according to IG 266, the sign of peace may be given by the celebrant to the minister, the invitation "Let us offer each other the sign of peace" is not said.
265. For Mass with a Bishop, the bishop gives the kiss of peace at least to two concelebrants and then to the first deacon (CB 99). In Caeremoniale Episcoporum. n 100, it says the concelebrants, deacons, and other ministers give the sign of peace in a similar way "simili modo". The word for "kiss", "osculum", is not used in this paragraph. Surprisingly "kiss of peace" appears in CB 100, in the English translation [Ceremonial of Bishops (Minnesota, Liturgical Press, 1989) page 42.] No mention is made of the "kiss of peace" in the IG. According to CB 101, the faithful exchange the sign of peace in the manner approved by the Conference of Bishops. It may be accompanied by "Peace be with you" with the response "And also with you" (CB 103).
266. For the Stational Mass, the kiss of peace is not mentioned, except as a footnote. CB 161 suggests that while the invitation is optional, the exchanging of the sign of peace is compulsory:
267. One of the deacons may give the invitation to an exchange of the sign of peace by facing the people and saying, Let us offer each other. The bishop gives the sign of peace at least to the two concelebrants nearest him, then to the first of the deacons. All exchange a sign of peace and charity that is in accord with local custom. (Footnote: See nos. 99-103 of this Ceremonial on the kiss of peace.)
268. According to IG 83, the breaking of the Eucharistic bread is done by the priest alone, or by the priest and deacon. During this, the Lamb of God (i.e. Agnus Dei), is recited aloud or sung by the choir or cantor with the congregation responding. It may be repeated as many times as necessary to accompany the breaking of the bread. The final repetition concludes with the words Grant us peace.
269. For Mass with only one minister, without a congregation, according to IG 267, while breaking the Eucharist bread, the priest says the Lamb of God with the minister.
270. According to IG 278, if fragments of the Eucharistic bread adhere to the priest's fingers, especially after breaking of the bread, the priest wipes his fingers over the paten or, if necessary, washes them.
271. IG 83 has an interesting addition about the fraction, the breaking of the bread: "Nor should it be unnecessarily prolonged or its importance overemphasized." There is no mention of the Eucharistic wine being poured into chalices, of the tabernacle being opened, or of Extraordinary Ministers approaching. A new instruction, in IG 162, says Extraordinary Ministers are to approach after the priest receives communion. Perhaps the other requirements for distributing communion should take place after the priest receives communion. Then the faithful would be actively singing the Communion Song while the tabernacle is opened and the Eucharistic wine distributed.
272. There are no instructions to kneel or sit after the Lamb of God. According to IG 43, the faithful are standing, "They should sit ... if this seems helpful, during the period of religious silence after communion." The Conference of Bishops may adapt this, following IG 390.
273. For Mass with Children, according to DMC 31 "To facilitate the children's participation in singing the ... Agnus Dei it is permissible to use with the melodies appropriate vernacular texts, accepted by competent authority, even if they do not correspond exactly to the liturgical texts." However according to IG 366: "It is not permitted to substitute for the chants found in the Order of Mass, e.g. at the Agnus Dei."
274. According to IG 86, the Communion Song is begun during the priest's reception of communion.
275. According to IG 87, the song may be sung by the choir alone or by the choir or cantor with the congregation. The song is to be approved by the Conference of Bishops, or be an antiphon from the Gradulae Romanum (with or without the psalm) or an antiphon with psalm from the Graduale Simplex.
276. If there is no singing, the Communion Antiphon from the Missal is recited by the faithful, a group of them, by the reader, or by the priest. If recited by the priest, he says it after he has received communion, and before he gives communion to the faithful. For Mass with only one minister, without a congregation, the priest says the communion antiphon (IG 269).
277. As a rule, the communicants approach in procession. The faithful are not permitted to take up the consecrated bread or the sacred chalice themselves, and still less to hand them on to one another. (IG 160).
278. The faithful may communicate either standing or kneeling, as established by the Conference of Bishops. When the faithful communicate standing it is recommended that they make a gesture of reverence, laid down by the Conference of Bishops, before receiving the Sacrament. (IG 160).
279. According to CB 71, "those who pass before the blessed sacrament genuflect, except when they are walking in procession". It would therefore seem inappropriate to introduce the genuflection into the communion procession as the gesture of reverence.
280. When communion is given only in the form of bread, the priest raises it saying The body of Christ. The communicants reply Amen. They receive the sacrament as they choose, either on the tongue or in the hand (where this is allowed). The sacred host is consumed in its entirety as soon as it is received (IG 161).
281. For Mass with only one minister, without a congregation, there are special instructions in IG 268: If the minister is not to receive communion, the priest does not say This is the Lamb of God .... Instead he just says inaudibly Lord, I am not worthy ...
282. According to IG 283, communion under both kinds may be
permitted for the following reasons, in addition to those given
in the ritual books:
283. The diocesan bishop may lay down norms for distribution of Communion under both kinds in his diocese. Regarding the methods of distributing Holy Communion under both kinds, the Bishop's Conference may publish norms, with the recognitio of the Apostolic See.
284. According to IG 284, when communion is distributed under both kinds, as a general rule, the deacon adminsters the chalice.
285. Holy communion in the form of "bread only", should be offered to those who want to take it in that form (IG 284).
286. According to IG 286, if the Precious Blood is given directly from the chalice, the communicant stands before the minister after receiving the body of Christ. The minister says: The blood of Christ; the communicant answers: Amen. The minister hands the chalice to the communicant, who drinks from it, hands it back to the minister and withdraws. The minister wipes the rim of the chalice with the purificator.
287. Intinction is described in IG 287. The communicant holds the communion plate under their chin, and approaches the priest who holds the chalice. The priest takes the Eucharistic host, from the minister holding the vessel, intincts it into the chalice, and showing it, says: The body and blood of Christ. The communicant responds: Amen and receives the sacrament in the mouth from the priest. This changes the instructions of GIRM 246, which had the minister hold the chalice, instead of the priest. Unfortunately the instructions for the acolyte, in IG 191, have not been modified to reflect this, and continue to have him holding the chalice for communion by intinction.
288. For concelebrants, a wide range of methods are described for them to receive communion, in IG 242 - 249. The blood of the Lord may be taken from the chalice directly, by intinction, through a tube or with a spoon (IG 245). The description of using the tube and spoon has been removed, however. Some methods require a second corporal to be placed at the side of the altar.
289. In Mass with a deacon, he "assists the priest in
giving communion to the people" (IG 182).
290. "Extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion" are instituted Acolytes, the faithful commissioned according to the prescribed rite, and members of the faithful commissioned by the priest for the occasion (IG 162). The priest may call upon them to assist him if other priests are not available and there is a great number of communicants. They do not approach the altar until the priest has received communion.
291. According to IG 280, if any Eucharistic bread, or a particle of it falls, it is to be picked up reverently. If any of the precious blood spills, the area is washed and the water poured into the sacrarium.
292. According to IG 278, "Whenever a fragment of the Eucharistic bread adheres to his fingers, especially after the ... communion of the faithful, the priest wipes his fingers over the paten or, if necessary, washes them." Similarly for the bishop after communion, he "if need be, washes his hands" (CB 166). This would seem to apply equally to "Extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion".
293. According to IG 279, as a general rule for all forms of Mass: "The vessels are cleansed by the priest, deacon or acolyte after communion or after Mass, if possible at a side table." The water or water and wine, used to cleanse the chalice are drunk by the one who does the cleansing.
294. According to IG 306, "from the presentation of the gifts until the cleansing of the vessels" the chalice, paten, pyx, corporal, purificator and missal remain on the altar. It seems, therefore, that all these should be removed from the altar during the cleansings. However provision is made for some of them to remain on the altar, for some types of Mass, as detailed below.
295. For a Basic Mass, without deacon or concelebrants the instructions are given in IG 163:
296. After the distribution of communion, the priest consumes any remaining consecrated wine at the altar. Similarly consecrated hosts are consumed by the priest at the altar. Alternatively, the priest may carry the consecrated hosts to the place of reservation of the Eucharist (i.e. the tabernacle).
297. At the altar the priest collects any remaining particles. At the side table or the side of the altar, the priest cleanses the paten or vessel over the chalice. He then cleanses the chalice, saying inaudibly: Lord, may the food we have received ... , and dries it with a purificator. If this is done at the altar, the vessels are taken to the side table by a minister.
298. Alternatively, the vessels are covered and left on a corporal, "either on the altar or the side table" (IG 163), for cleansing immediately after Mass, following the dismissal of the people.
299. According to IG 192 "a formally instituted acolyte helps the priest or deacon to cleanse and arrange the vessels after communion. In the absence of a deacon, the acolyte carries the sacred vessels to the side table and purifies, wipes and arranges them in the customary manner."
300. For Mass with a deacon, according to IG 183 - 184: After the distribution of communion, the deacon consumes, at the altar, the blood of Christ, assisted by other deacons and priests, if necessary. With the priest, the deacon collects any remaining fragments at the altar. The deacon takes the chalice and other vessels to the side table where he cleanses them in the usual way. He may leave them covered, on a corporal, on the side table, to be cleansed immediately after Mass, following the dismissal of the people.
301. For a Mass with concelebrants, according to IG 247 and IG 249, after communion, the deacon drinks any remaining Eucharistic wine and then takes the chalice to the side table. The chalice is cleansed by the deacon or an instituted acolyte, in the usual way of IG 183. Apparently this would only be done by concelebrants in the absence of both.
302. For Mass with only one minister, without a congregation the instructions are in IG 270. The priest cleanses the chalice. It may either be taken to the side table by the minister, or replaced on the altar at the side.
303. According to CB 166 after distributing communion: "When the bishop returns to the chair after communion, he puts on the skullcap and, if need be, washes his hands. All are seated and a period of prayerful silence may follow, or a song...".
304. The instruction "all are seated" seems to be unique to the Stational Mass. According to IG 43 "all should sit ... if this seems helpful, during the period of silence after communion." This has been interpreted as an option to "sit, stand or kneel" in Notitiae 10 (1974) 407 [Documents on the Liturgy, (Minnesota, Liturgical Press, 1982) page 474].
305. Perhaps it would be appropriate for a Conference of Bishops to adapt the posture so that all sit (at this time) for all Masses.
306. For Mass with Morning Prayer or Evening Prayer (from the Liturgy of the Hours) the Gospel Canticle, with its antiphon, is sung (GILH 94).
307. According to IG 165, the Prayer After Communion is said by the priest, standing at the altar or the chair, facing the people.
308. This is the last "presidential prayer", to which everyone present listens with attention, there should be no other prayer or liturgical song, and the organ or other instruments should not be played (IG 32).
309. Announcements may be made at this time. According to IG 184 "the deacon may make them, unless the priest prefers to do so himself."
310. According to IG 170, if another liturgical service follows the Mass the concluding rite (greeting, blessing, and dismissal) is omitted.
311. According to IG 167 "The priest, joining his hands and then immediately placing his left hand upon his breast, elevates his right hand and says: May almighty God bless you and, as he blesses with the sign of the cross, continues: the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit. All answer: Amen."
312. There are no instructions for the sign of the cross to be made by anyone else. At the beginning of Mass "the whole assembly" makes the sign of the cross (IG 50), but this is not the case for the blessing.
313. Before reading the Gospel, the deacon is blessed by the priest. Specific instructions are given in IG 175: "The deacon signs himself with the sign of the cross and responds: Amen."
314. For a blessing at the end of Mass by a bishop, the sign of the cross is made three times (CB 1120). But those being blessed do not cross themselves three times, or even once.
315. The correct gesture is for everyone to bow the head at the naming of the three Divine Persons (IG 275).
316. It would be possible for a Conference of Bishops to adapt the gesture, in accordance with IG 390. However to be consistent with the other liturgical rites, this would also involve modifying the instructions for blessings in all the other liturgical books.
317. In Mass with a deacon, he says Go in the peace of Christ (IG 185).
318. No provision has been made for a song after the dismissal. In IG 44, the procession after the dismissal is notably absent from those to be accompanied with song.
319. After the dismissal, the altar is kissed by the priest and deacon, "followed with a profound bow to the altar by the priest, the deacon and other ministers." (IG 90).
320. According to IG 193 "the acolyte and other ministers return in procession to the sacristy with the deacon and the priest in the same way and in the same order in which they entered".
321. Therefore, if incense has been used during the Mass, the thurifer will lead the procession, carrying the thurible, although incense is not added to it. (No provision is made to carry the thurible between the sanctuary and sacristry during the Mass, and doing so may be a distraction. Perhaps it could be placed on a stand, in the sanctuary, during the homily.)
322. Candles are taken from the altar, the Book of the Gospels is carried, and the processional cross.
323. According to IG 274 "If there is a tabernacle with the Blessed Sacrament in the sanctuary the priest, deacon and other ministers genuflect to it when they approach or leave the altar, but not during the celebration of Mass itself. ... Ministers who are carrying the processional cross or the candles bow their head in place of a genuflection."
324. For Mass with only one minister, without a congregation, the dismissal is omitted. The priest kisses the altar, and he and the minister make a profound bow to the altar (IG 272).
325. For a Stational Mass, at the vesting room or sacristy, all make a reverence to the cross with the bishop. The concelebrants and ministers bow to the bishop, then lay aside what they have been carrying and their vestments. "All are to be careful in observing silence, out of respect for a spirit of recollection and the holiness of the house of God" (CB 170).Copyright, J.R. Lilburne, 31 January 2001. Last updated the left column only on 15 April 2002.